In this session, we are going to model the structural elements and walls. After the foundation modeling, let us continue to model the upper structure. In this session, we are going to construct the structural columns and RC walls in B1F. First, let me demonstrate how to construct the structural columns in the B1F. We can directly duplicate the columns from the raft foundation. We need first to click the drawing area so that we can edit the properties of the B1 view. In the “Properties” palette, edit “Primary Range” in the “Extent” field. After we click the “Edit” button, the “View Range” window will pop-up. In this pop-up window, let us set the “Offset” values to “-10” in both “Bottom” of “Primary range,” and “View Depth” of “Level.” The next step is to select all the objects in the drawing area, and then select “Filters” in the “Modify” tab, uncheck all the items except “Structural Column.” Click the “Copy to Clipboard” tool, and then select the “Paste” tool with the option “Aligned to Selected Levels.” Let us select B1F as our target for duplicating the columns. However, we need to adjust the top level of these columns to 1F in the “Properties” palette. As for “Base Offset” and “Top Offset,” we set their values to zeros. Now we have finished all the structural columns of B1F. The next step is to construct the wall components. We can identify in the underlay that there are two types of walls in B1F. The walls around both shaft and elevator are brick walls, and others are RC walls. Let me show you how to construct the top row of the walls as a demonstration for wall modeling. You can follow the same procedure to finish the remained walls by yourself. First, click the “Architecture” tab, and select the drop-down list of “Wall: Architectural” tool. In the “Properties” palette, select “Basic RC Wall 20 cm,” choose “Finish Face: Exterior” in “Location Line”, and set “Base Constraint” to “B1F,” “Top Constraint” to “1F.” As for “Base Offset” and “Top Offset,” we retain their value as zero. In addition to these parameters, it is worth noting that we need to uncheck “Chain” in the “Options Bar.” The next step is to construct the walls according to the underlay. By clicking the two endpoints of a wall from the underlay, we can create a new wall. The rest of the walls can be constructed by the same procedure. However, you should develop a habit to follow a fixed sequence so you won’t miss out any walls. Let us construct these walls from left to right, and from top to bottom. We should also be aware that several walls have different geometry properties. For example, the thickness of the side walls of the stairs is different from that of others, and the wall height of reservoirs and stair towers are also different. According to the notations on the underlay, the height of the reservoir is 195 cm, so we should change its “Base Constraint” to “B1F”, “Top Constraint” to “Unconnected,” and then set the “Unconnected Height” to 195 cm. The walls of the stair tower are more complicated because some of them do not connect to the B1 floor. We need to apply the “Edit Profile” tool under the “Modify” tab, and then create a section view to edit the profile of the wall. After constructing the walls in B1F, we can move on to construct beams and slabs for 1F. Let us start with beams. In the “Project Browser,” open the 1F plan view in “Floor Plans.” Before constructing the beams for 1F, we must first edit the “View Range” in the “Properties” palette to make the columns in B1F visible so we can identify the connections between columns and beams. Because in the 1F plan view, the elements located in B1F are not visible by default. We can input an appropriate value, such as -10, until the columns in B1F can be identified in the 1F plan view. The procedure of constructing beam components is similar to that of constructing foundation beams. Since the beam types are different between the two cases, we must select the correct beam type during the modeling. From the underlay, we can only identify the width of the beam, but we can identify them in the beam component table on the right side of the underlay. For the primary structural framing, we should select “RC-beam: Rectangle 35 x 65 cm,” and for the secondary structural framing, we should select “RC-beam: Rectangle 30 x 50 cm.” After we model the beams in 1F, the next step is to construct the slabs enclosed by the structural frames. The procedure of constructing the slabs in 1F is the same as the way we construct the slabs in B1F. However, we should be careful about that the slabs in 1F have different elevations. We can identify this by the elevation marks on the underlay. Although the top three slabs are marked with the elevation symbol +0, the elevation should be set to the ground level, which is -20 cm. Therefore, when we construct these three slabs, we should set the value of “Top Offset” to -20 in the “Properties” palette. Besides the three slabs, all other slabs have the same elevation symbol +20, meaning that we can set their “Top Offset” to zeros. In the next step, let us model the columns in 1F. According to the underlay, there are twelve columns in 1F, and their locations on the floor plan are the same as the B1F columns. Therefore, we can use the “Copy to Clipboard” tool to duplicate these columns from B1F to 1F. Open the floor plan of B1F. In the drawing area, hold the Ctrl button, and then select the twelve columns that we want to duplicate from B1F. Under the “Modify” tab, click “Copy to Clipboard.” In the “Paste” tool’s drop-down menu, select the “Aligned to Current View” tool. Now we can go to the floor plan of 1F to see the columns in 1F. In the next step, we will model the walls for 1F. The steps are the same as what we did for the walls in B1F. Under the “Architecture” tab, select “Wall: Architecture” and edit the parameters in the “Properties” palette. We set “Base Constraint” to 1F, “Top Constraint” to 2F, and keep both “Top Offset” and “Base Offset” as zeros. With these parameters, we can now proceed to construct the walls. While constructing the walls, we should be aware of different wall heights because not all of the walls reach the level of 2F. For example, the height of the parapets around the planter box is 105 cm. In this case, we set their “Base Constraint” to “1F”, the “Top Constraint” to “Unconnected,” and the “Unconnected Height” to “105.” After the wall construction is done, we can go to the 3D view to browse the results. In the “Properties” palette, check “Section Box” and adjust the boundaries of the section box. We can now see the complete structural columns and RC walls in B1F.