In this session, I am going to show you how to add columns to a BIM model. In this course, we would like to follow the construction sequence of a real project to do the modeling, so it goes from columns, beams, slabs then walls. Let us use the first floor as an example. You can download and open the sample project file, and then open the “1F” structural plan in the Project Browser. In this sample project, we have created the essential structural components between the basement slab and the first-floor slab. So let us start creating the first-floor columns. Select the “Column” tool either from the “Structure” tab or the “Architecture” tab. Here we select the “Column” tool under the “Architecture” tab, and we could find two options in the drop-down menu. One is “Structural Column,” and the other is “Column: Architectural.” In this example, we would like to create a structural column, so let us select the “Structural Column” tool. We can also use the quick access key “CL” to create a structural column. In the “Properties” palette, let us first select the column type “30 x 45 cm Concrete Column.” When we are creating a column, the cursor is usually at the center of the column section shape. But sometimes the center of a column section shape is not at the intersection of grid lines. That may result in difficulty in positioning the column. To avoid this difficulty, we can use the “Align” tool. Let me demonstrate how to use the “Align” tool. Go to the “Modify” tab, on the “Modify” panel, click on the “Align” tool. First, we need to select a line reference for alignment. And then we select the edge of the column section shape to be aligned with the reference. Now the column is positioned correctly. On the “Options Bar,” there are some options to adjust the column properties. You can see two drop-down menus here. In the first drop-down menu, we can choose “Depth” or ”Height” to determine the drawing direction. If we select “Depth,” the column will be created downward from its base, and if we choose “Height,” the column will be created upward from its base. And in the second drop-down menu, we can select a floor level for the other end of the column or select “Unconnected.” If we select “Depth” in the first drop-down menu and select “B1” in the second drop-down menu, the column will be created downward from the current work plane, namely, 1F, to the “B1” level. And if we select “Height” in the first drop-down menu and select “2F” in the second drop-down menu, the column will be created upward from the current work plane to the “2F” level. On the other hand, if we select “Unconnected” in the second drop-down menu, we can specify the column height in the input box. For example, we input “250” in the input box, and then the column is created upward from the current work plane to a height of 250 cm. The column is not connected to the second floor because the height between the first floor and the second floor is 3 meters. Finally, by checking the checkbox “Rotate after placement,” we can rotate the column to any angles after placing the column. If we only need to rotate the column by 90 degrees, we can press the Spacebar to rotate the column counter clockwise before placing the column. We can also copy the columns instead of creating them one by one. Use the “Copy” tool to create multiple columns quickly. Like I mentioned in the previous lecture, first, select the element that we want to copy, then go to the “Modify” panel, click on the “Copy” tool. Remember to check “Multiple” on the “Options Bar” so that we can create multiple copies consecutively. Click to select “move start point” and move the cursor toward the area we want to place the columns. Click again to enter “move end point” to place copies. Press the Esc key or click on the “Copy” tool again to finish copying. If we can not find the column type we need in the “Properties Palette,” we have two ways to add the column type we need. One is importing a column family, and the other is duplicating an existing column type and modifying its parameters. If we choose to import a column family, go to the “Properties Palette” and click on “Edit Type.” In the “Type Properties” dialog, click on “Load...” to select and load a Revit family file for columns into Revit. Or if we want to duplicate an existing column type, click on “Duplicate…,” and in the “Name” dialog, enter the name, for example, “40 x 50 cm” and click on “OK.” Then under ”Dimensions,” modify the parameters “b” to “40” and “h” to “50.” “b” is the width of the section shape and “h” is the height of the section shape. Click on “OK,” and now we have a new column type. These are the main ways to manipulate columns in Revit. In the next session, I will introduce you how to create beams.