Hello again, welcome to our second module on Intended Learning Outcomes. This module will be in three parts, so this first one will be about Bloom's Taxonomy. So, the Intended Learning Outcomes for the second module are basically to understand the variety of learning domains within health professions education. To apply Bloom's Taxonomy to cognitive learning outcomes. And then the other two sessions we'll talk about Miller's pyramid, as it relates to clinical competence outcomes, as well as the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition. And, going to have you, try and apply that model to your context in medical education. So let's talk about learning domains, to start with. What do we want our learners to do? Well, many of you are familiar with the cognitive domain, or, sort of knowledge, they need to know things, they need to have specialized understandings. But there's also Psychomotor Domain that we find important such as skills and behaviors that we expect the health professions person to have and to acquire. And then, the other learning domain is the Affective Domain, or sort of attitudes and I'll talk a little about that but further but the effective domain is probably the hardest one to sort of put a gate around and also the hardest one to assess. So, Bloom's Taxonomy is actually focused mainly on the cognitive domains, so what do people know and how do they know it. So the domain is actually hierarchical in the way it's formed. At meaning that from the base moving upward implies more complex understanding and more depth of knowledge. So, the very first level that Bloom describes is knowledge or basically pure data recall. I have this information, I can tell you what it means. I can recite the magna carta or I can, I can't, but you could. or I could give you the lyrics to a song or give you the specific anatomy of the hand. So basic data recall. Comprehension however, is the next level up and that is implying that you understand for meaning. So, I know what the magna carta is and why it's important. The next level up on his taxonomy is application. So we're going to use the knowledge that we already have in a novel situation. So we're going to apply our understandings in a real set, setting. The next level up is analysis. So, instead of just applying what you know. You actually understand the different elements and what the relationships are between the different components of whatever it is you're trying to understand. So, that seems very vague, let me bring it home for us. in terms of choosing a medication for a specific disease state, we would want to have an understanding of the different components of the medication. What it does, what it side effects might be, in which types of people it would be contraindicated et cetera. Synthesis is actually putting together new knowledge. So, while I am giving you knowledge about Bloom's Taxonomy, how I have organized these talks as well as the modules, is hopefully formulating new knowledge. So, it's putting things together and helping others learn it. And then the highest level of his domain is the evaluation, or being able to judge the information or the ideas. So each. Level builds on the one before it, and if you're trying to test cognitive understandings or cognitive domains, then you may want to create your learning objects. So whether it's reading, whether it's a lecture, whether it's an assessment to the different taxonomy levels, so to put it a different way, right if you're someone who understands things more visually. Then if we start at the bottom of the pyramid, knowledge is more simple and concrete. And moving up the hierarchy, you get more Complex or Abstract ideas and how you're able to put them all together and make sense of them, is a higher order skill. And basically what we want from our learners, is to be able to attain those higher level skills so that they can act and think independently. So, when we're creating intended learning outcomes, the ILOs, which is how you often hear people talk about it. are often constructed in a sentence. So, you will have noticed that with each module I give us a sentence. So, let's define the muscles of the hand. Or, if we want to move to comprehension we may say, the learner will describe the functions of each muscle in the hand and how that might make the digit move. So, what I've listed here for you is, moving sequentially up in complexity from knowledge to evaluation. The different types of verbs you might use, when you have an intended learning outcome where you want people to analyze something, or synthesize something, as opposed to comprehension. So many investigators have taken Bloom's Taxonomy and try to break it down into further components to help understand well you know the, the base of knowledge that's pretty, its a, a big bucket to put information in. So Craftwell has come up with a modification that you'll see many people use. So, he describes factual knowledge where people are aware of terminology, dates, specific knowledge elements, as well conceptual knowledge, which can include classifications, categories, generalizations, theories, et cetera. And you could see how those two factual and conceptual knowledge does fit under the large category of knowledge. But, I, I think we could all agree those are subtle differences between the types of knowledge that people might have. The other thing that Krathwohl says is, well there's also procedural knowledge, meaning knowing how to do something. So there may be a specific skill, or algorithms, or techniques, and that you would have criteria for using those specific procedures. And again, that's all knowledge, you know what to do, but it's a different variation of knowledge. And then, he talks about metacognitive knowledge, which we've also talked about in a previous module. Talking about, sort of, strategic understandings, contextual and conditional knowledge, as well as the importance of self reflection and self knowledge. So, if you look at the revised taxonomy, you'll often see people talking about being able to remember knowledge, to understand knowledge, applying that knowledge, then analyzing it, evaluating it, and creating it. So in summary there are a number of ways to understand cognitive knowledge. And when creating intended learning outcomes. Basically, what you want your learner to achieve from your educational intervention it's very helpful to have the end in mind first. And so, what I always tell my learners is that form follows function. And if you can say, you know I want this to be a lecture where people get information, new information for the first time, then those are knowledge ILOs. If I want you to listen to this lecture and then to be able to answer questions, which I'm going to have you do, then that's more of an analysis or probably a synthesis depending on how I ask, ask my questions. So we finished with Bloom's Taxonomy, the next few modules will be about Miller's pyramid, as well as Dreyfus.