It is convenient to begin the study of jazz improvisation with the blues. And focus on relatively simple concepts such as riffing and one scale improvisation. Studying blues improvisation offers a solid foundation to the musicians which one can expand and develop later. One of the most accessible strategies in blues improvisation involves playing simple melodic ideas derived from the blues scale called blues riffs. In using this approach, the negotiation of the actual changes, cord progressions, is basically secondary. Because, blues riffs since they are derived from the blues scale will work over different kinds of harmonies of the. Since the act of improvisation is a complex activity because it involves managing melodic devices, keeping track of the underlying harmonies, play with a good sense of rhythm, communicating with the rhythm section. And being engaged in that musical dialogue with musicians. By focusing our improvisation on the blues, we can zero in on the rhythmic properties of our playing. So using blues riffs will help us to focus on the rhythm of our lines. So therefore, we can prioritize in our improvisation, and the priority goes to the phrasing and rhythm. So blues riffs are derived from the blues scale or major blue scale and are characterized by strong melodic and rhythmic profile. On the screen, you can see a couple of Blues Riffs derived from the B flat. Regular blues and B flat major blue scale. So now, I'll ask Christian to play the first one, okay. One, two, one, two, three, four. [MUSIC] Okay, one more time. One, two, three, four. [MUSIC] Okay, so let's talk about that riff. So, it starts on flat five, on the blue note. [MUSIC] All right, then it utilizes on the blue note, on flat three. And on scale there before. So, in terms of its usage over different chords changes of the blues, what I'm going to play, now I'm going to play different chords from the B flat blues and I ask Christian to play the same riff. And I want you to listen to the relationship between what Christian plays and the underlying accompaniment. Try to answer the following question, whether these riffs work over different changes. Let's do that, okay? One, two, three, four. [MUSIC] Okay, now different chord change. [MUSIC] Different chord change. [MUSIC] You can hear that I played different harmonies, and Christian played the same idea, and they worked. They worked over different harmonies. That's the true potential of blues riffs. You can use them in your solo, and focus on the rhythm of your phrases and articulation. Each time Christian played that he remembered about playing with a good sense of time and play with those accents on the upbeats. So now let's do the following. Actually, let's play little elaborations of that melodic ideas because after a while playing the same thing might get a little bit monotonous, right? So we should be able to embellish the Blues Riff with some small melodic devices. So on the screen, you can see one of the embellishing devices, basically a turn figure that will enhance the presentation of the riff. So let's play the original riff, and then with the embellishment. One, two, three, four. [MUSIC] Okay, so if you hear the second one featured a little bit more melodic and activities, okay? Right, so now, we can start improvising with that riff, using blues, so what we can do. We can play that riff and focus on it's placement in the form, so Christian, how about playing that riff in every other measure, okay? So let's do that. Maybe let's pick it up a little bit, okay. One, two, and one, two, three, four. [MUSIC] Okay, so that's good starting point, focusing on the form of the blue and being able to actually use these riffs at specific locations. But it sounds fairly predictable, and after a while, it gets a little bit monotonous. The listener can actually anticipate your next move and as an improviser, this will be able to create a little bit of mystery in your playing, right? So now, let's do something different. Let's use the same kind of framework, kind of structure of the riff but see if we can elaborate that riff a little bit, adding different melodic embellishments. And see if you can display that vigor rhythmically. Instead of starting on end of one, see if you can start it on end of three and so forth. A little bit slower now. One, two, one, two, three, four. [MUSIC] Okay, so that was very convincing. And what Christian did which was particularly effective, he used that figure first in its original form. And then he started to experiment with different metric locations of that figure. So starting on the end of three, will get you across the bar lines which is very effective using space in his improvisation. And above all, playing with a good sense of articulation, time, and rhythm and listening to my. But it's still very predictable in terms of the melodic content. Remember, from the last lecture we discussed the form of the blues being A, A, B. The first two lines are basically repetitions of one another, and the last line of the blues offers something new. So now, with that in mind, let's see if you can use the same riff, elaborate a bit more. But in the final phrase, measures 9 to 11, 12, try to introduce a new melodic idea that emerges from the previous narrative, okay? One, two, a one, two, three, four. [MUSIC] Okay, so again you can hear that this first two lines, A and A prime were basically identical with slight differences. They were cut in the same register and the final phrase, Christian created more tension, more melodic activities. He extended his range, he went up, before resolving everything down. So you can use our ideas, what we just described as the model for your own practicing rubrics. So you can, for instance, try to play your motific ideas, your riffs, in measure one and three, as you're one and four. You can start on different metric locations within the measure. The most difficult ones, are those that will cut across the bar lines or cut across the formal boundaries. So try to experiment, it always is helpful to have the piece of music in front of you with exact notation, an indication of the beginning of your phrases just to keep you in track. And remember, to practice these ideas with the metronome because metronome can always keep you honest as far rhythm and time is concerned.